This Week, “Adoption of the Internet, part 5″
Standards started to take shape, making it possible to grow and add nodes to the network. Researchers had to make it easier to navigate the network of nodes without having to remember numeric IP addresses.
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- Using a simpler, more memorable name in place of a host’s numerical address dates back to the ARPANET era. The Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International) maintained a text file named HOSTS.TXT that mapped host names to the numerical addresses of computers on the ARPANET. Host operators obtained copies of the master file. The rapid growth of the emerging network required an automated system for maintaining the host names and addresses. Paul Mockapetris designed the Domain Name System at the University of California, Irvine in 1983, and wrote the first implementation at the request of Jon Postel from ISI. The Internet Engineering Task Force published the original specifications in RFC 882 and RFC 883 in November 1983, which established the concepts that still guide DNS development.
- In the late 1970s, two projects began independently, with the same goal: to define a unifying standard for the architecture of networking systems. One was administered by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), while the other was undertaken by the International Telegraph and Telephone Consultative Committee, or CCITT (the abbreviation is from the French version of the name). These two international standards bodies each developed a document that defined similar networking models. In 1983, these two documents were merged to form a standard called The Basic Reference Model for Open Systems Interconnection. The standard is usually referred to as the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model, the OSI Reference Model, or simply the OSI model. It was published in 1984 by both the ISO, as standard ISO 7498, and the renamed CCITT (now called the Telecommunications Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunication Union or ITU-T) as standard X.200
- The Domain Name System standardized the “hosts” files, making number to name translation a network service.
- The OSI Model was defined, and clearly outlined the delineation between the network, the protocols and applications.