With a working network in place, innovators around the world took notice. Key developments had to focus around how to use this network for business, information sharing and communication.
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1969 – 1972
- During his graduate student years, Vint Cerf studied under Professor Gerald Estrin, worked in Professor Leonard Kleinrock’s data packet networking group that connected the first two nodes of the ARPANet, the predecessor tothe Internet, and “contributed to a host-to-host protocol” for the ARPANet. While at UCLA, he also met Robert E. (Bob) Kahn, who was working on the ARPANet hardware architecture.
- Raymond Samuel Tomlinson implemented an email system in 1971 on the ARPANET. It was the first system able to send mail between users on different hosts connected to the ARPAnet. (Previously, mail could be sent only to others who used the same computer.) To achieve this, he used the @ sign to separate the user from their machine, which has been used in email addresses ever since.
- One of the early computer networking designs, development of the ALOHA network, (ALOHANET) was begun in September 1968 at the University of Hawaii under the leadership of Norman Abramson along with Thomas Gaarder, Franklin Kuo, Shu Lin, Wesley Peterson and Edward Wheldon. The goal was to use low-cost commercial radio equipment to connect users on Oahu and the other Hawaiian islands with a central time-sharing computer on the main Oahu campus. The first packet broadcasting unit went into operation in June 1971. Terminals were connected to a special purpose “terminal connection unit” using RS-232 at 9600 bit/s.
- Ray Tomlinson innovated email for individuals, and is directly responsible for the “@”
- ALOHANET, the first wide area wireless network to connect the islands, and RS-232 terminal based communications