The network was growing, and key applications were designed. Now, key innovations had to be created to allow this to grow and scale.
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- Ethernet was developed at Xerox PARC between 1973 and 1974. It was inspired by ALOHAnet, which Robert Metcalfe had studied as part of his PhD dissertation. The idea was first documented in a memo that Metcalfe wrote on May 22, 1973, where he named it after the disproven luminiferous ether as an “omnipresent, completely-passive medium for the propagation of electromagnetic waves”.
- While working on a satellite packet network project, Robert Kahn came up with the initial ideas for what later became the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which was intended as a replacement for an earlier network protocol, NCP, used in the ARPANET. While working on this, he played a major role in forming the basis of open-architecture networking, which would allow computers and networks all over the world to communicate with each other, regardless of what hardware or software the computers on each network used. Vint Cerf joined him on the project in the spring of 1973, and together they completed an early version of TCP. Later, it was separated into two separate layers, with the more basic functions being moved to the Internet Protocol (IP). The two together are usually referred to as TCP/IP, and form part of the basis for the modern Internet.
- From 1973 to 1974, Cerf’s networking research group at Stanford worked out details of the idea, resulting in the first TCP specification. A significant technical influence was the early networking work at Xerox PARC, which produced the PARC Universal Packet protocol suite, much of which existed around that time.
- In November, 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK, and Norway.
- Ray Tomlinson innovated email for individuals, and is directly responsible for the “@”
- ALOHANET, the first wide area wireless network to connect the islands, and RS-232 terminal based communications